SAR involves the generation of a mobile signal which can translocate to distal parts of the plant to activate defence. Moreover, cuticular permeability is strongly influenced by environmental parameters, increasing with temperature at the leaf surface, probably because cuticle‐controlled water evaporation contributes to plant cooling (Shepherd & Griffiths, 2006). More recently, drought stress experiments and water loss measurements were carried out on the lacs1/lacs2 double mutant, as well as on the single mutants, revealing that lacs2 and the double mutant were similarly affected in cuticular permeability while the lacs1 mutant showed a wild‐type phenotype (Weng et al., 2010). Similarly, SAL1 may mediate recycling of CR4. Maintenance of epidermal cell fate appears to necessitate a constant cross‐talk between cells within the epidermal layer to promote the correct developmental fate (Ingram, 2007). M.J. was supported by a PhD fellowship of the French Ministry of Higher Education. Metabolic pathways are shown as black arrows, enzyme activities in blue text, transcription factors in red text, potential direct regulation (for example transcriptional regulation) as solid red arrows and pathways that are proposed but not mechanistically elucidated as discontinuous black arrows. There has been some debate as to whether aleurone cell fate is determined by cell lineage or by positional cues. Among the transcription factors regulating the activity of genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis are several AP2/EREBP (Activator Protein2 (AP2)/Ethylene Response Element Binding Protein (EREBP)) family members. Interestingly, SAL1 has been reported to co‐localize with DEK1 in a small cellular compartment in maize aleurone cells, suggesting that the proper concentration of DEK1 for specification of aleurone identity may be maintained by SAL1‐mediated recycling (Tian et al., 2007). It is important to note that these mutations are effective only in particular plant–pathogen interactions and do not provide general immunity against all pathogens. Molecular Dissection of TaLTP1 Promoter Reveals Functional Cis-Elements Regulating Epidermis-Specific Expression. Plant Epidermis. The enlargement shows the small RNA cascade involved in the regulation of adaxial/abaxial gene expression and cell fate in maize. If ‘epidermis’ is not the default identity but specified de novo, is the co‐ordinated acquisition of epidermal identity triggered by internal or external signals? Epidermal tissue system is the outermost covering of plants. Think for a moment about what leaves put up with. In contrast to ablations in the L2 or L3, there appear to be no pathways permitting regeneration of ablated L1 cells (Reinhardt et al., 2003a). Many of the above experiments also show that, in expansion‐competent backgrounds, the epidermis can compensate for defects in cell division, at least to some extent, by increasing cell size. SAL1 encodes a class E vacuolar sorting protein which could be involved in the trafficking of proteins required for the perception or transmission of a positional signal. In Arabidopsis thaliana, like in other dicots, the shoot epidermis originates from protodermis, the outermost cell layer of shoot apical meristem.We examined leaf epidermis in transgenic A. thaliana plants in which CDKA;1.N146, a negative dominant allele of A-type cyclin-dependent kinase, was expressed from the SHOOTMERISTEMLESS promoter, i.e., in the shoot apical meristem. Thus, a relatively late but extensive silencing of AtDEK1 activity causes a loss of epidermal cell identity in the cotyledons (Johnson et al., 2005). VLCFAs are involved in the hypersensitive response (HR) leading to localized cell death, while the cuticle provides signals triggering systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Transcriptome Profiling and Genome-Wide Association Studies Reveal GSTs and Other Defense Genes Involved in Multiple Signaling Pathways Induced by Herbicide Safener in Grain Sorghum. Its main function is to keep the leaf from drying out too fast, while being transparent to light. This result suggests that a polarity signal, or component thereof, is perceived in the L1, promoting the expression of mir390. Prevention of water loss. According to this hypothesis, aleurone cells receive qualitatively or quantitatively different signals to underlying cells, and differentiate accordingly. In this review we will first concentrate on current knowledge concerning the differentiation and maintenance of the generic epidermis and the deposition of a mature cuticle. 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